Stereotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Police officers buying doughnuts and coffee, an example of perceived stereotypical behavior in North America. In social psychology, a stereotype is a thought that can be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things. These thoughts or beliefs may or may not accurately reflect reality. However, this is only a fundamental psychological definition of a stereotype. Within psychology and spanning across other disciplines, there are different conceptualizations and theories of stereotyping that provide their own expanded definition. Some of these definitions share commonalities, though each one may also harbor unique aspects that may contradict the others. EtymologyThe term stereotype derives from the Greek words ÏƒÏ„ÎµÏÎµÏŒÏ‚ (stereos), "firm, solid" and Ï„ÏÏ€Î¿Ï‚ (typos), "impression", hence "solid impression on one or more idea/theory". The term comes from the printing trade and was first adopted in 1.
Firmin Didot to describe a printing plate that duplicated any typography. The duplicate printing plate, or the stereotype, is used for printing instead of the original. Outside of printing, the first reference to "stereotype" was in 1. However, it was not until 1.
American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion.Relationship with other types of intergroup attitudesStereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are understood as related but different concepts.[1. Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component and often occurs without conscious awareness, whereas prejudice is the affective component of stereotyping and discrimination is one of the behavioral components of prejudicial reactions.[1. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one's own, prejudice represents the emotional response, and discrimination refers to actions.Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other.[1.
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The persistent repetition of senseless acts or. persistent repetition or sameness of acts, ideas, or words. stereotypy (stĕr′ē-ə. stereotyped; stereotyped. Page Links: Other Torrents - Comments: File Name: [Request] Senseless Apocalypse - Senseless Stereotyped Idea (1999) Download Torrent: [Request] Senseless Apocalypse. SENSELESS APOCALYPSE (Japan) - 3 tracks from 'Senseless stereotyped idea' cd, released from HG Fact in 1999. No 9 : Negligence No 15 : Long Fart No 19 : Fast.
According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people emotionally react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, and then evaluate those characteristics.[1. Possible prejudicial effects of stereotypes are: Justification of ill- founded prejudices or ignorance.
Unwillingness to rethink one's attitudes and behavior towards stereotyped groups. Preventing some people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in activities or fields[1. Content. Stereotype content model, adapted from Fiske et al. Four types of stereotypes resulting from combinations of perceived warmth and competence. Stereotype content refers to the attributes that people think characterize a group. Studies of stereotype content examine what people think of others, rather than the reasons and mechanisms involved in stereotyping.[1. Early theories of stereotype content proposed by social psychologists such as Gordon Allport assumed that stereotypes of outgroups reflected uniform antipathy.[1.
For instance, Katz and Braly argued in their classic 1. By contrast, a newer model of stereotype content theorizes that stereotypes are frequently ambivalent and vary along two dimensions: warmth and competence. Warmth and competence are respectively predicted by lack of competition and status. Groups that do not compete with the in- group for the same resources (e. The groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions.[1.
The model explains the phenomenon that some out- groups are admired but disliked, whereas others are liked but disrespected. This model was empirically tested on a variety of national and international samples and was found to reliably predict stereotype content.[1. FunctionsEarly studies suggested that stereotypes were only used by rigid, repressed, and authoritarian people.
This idea has been refuted by contemporary studies that suggest the ubiquity of stereotypes and it was suggested to regard stereotypes as collective group beliefs, meaning that people who belong to the same social group share the same set of stereotypes.[1. Modern research asserts that full understanding of stereotypes requires considering them from two complementary perspectives: as shared within a particular culture/subculture and as formed in the mind of an individual person.[2. Relationship between cognitive and social functionsStereotyping can serve cognitive functions on an interpersonal level, and social functions on an intergroup level.[1. For stereotyping to function on an intergroup level (see social identity approaches: social identity theory and self- categorization theory), an individual must see themselves as part of a group and being part of that group must also be salient for the individual.[1. Craig Mc. Garty, Russell Spears, and Vincent Y.
Yzerbyt (2. 00. 2) argued that the cognitive functions of stereotyping are best understood in relation to its social functions, and vice versa.[2. Cognitive functionsStereotypes can help make sense of the world. They are a form of categorization that helps to simplify and systematize information. Thus, information is more easily identified, recalled, predicted, and reacted to.[1. Stereotypes are categories of objects or people. Between stereotypes, objects or people are as different from each other as possible. Within stereotypes, objects or people are as similar to each other as possible.Gordon Allport has suggested possible answers to why people find it easier to understand categorized information.[2.
First, people can consult a category to identify response patterns. Second, categorized information is more specific than non- categorized information, as categorization accentuates properties that are shared by all members of a group. Third, people can readily describe object in a category because objects in the same category have distinct characteristics. Finally, people can take for granted the characteristics of a particular category because the category itself may be an arbitrary grouping. A complementary perspective theorizes how stereotypes function as time- and energy- savers that allow people to act more efficiently. Yet another perspective suggests that stereotypes are people's biased perceptions of their social contexts. In this view, people use stereotypes as shortcuts to make sense of their social contexts, and this makes a person's task of understanding his or her world less cognitively demanding.Social functions: social categorizationIn the following situations, the overarching purpose of stereotyping is for people to put their collective self (their ingroup membership) in a positive light: [2. Explanation purposes. An anti- semitic 1.
Jewish male. As mentioned previously, stereotypes can be used to explain social events.[1. Henri Tajfel[1. 3] described his observations of how some people found that the anti- Semitic contents of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion only made sense if Jews have certain characteristics. Therefore, according to Tajfel,[1. Jews were stereotyped as being evil and yearning for world domination to match the anti- Semitic â€˜factsâ€™ as presented in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Justification purposesPeople create stereotypes of an outgroup to justify the actions that their ingroup has committed (or plans to commit) towards that outgroup.[1. For example, according to Tajfel,[1. Europeans stereotyped Turkish, Indian, and Chinese people as being incapable of achieving financial advances without European help.
This stereotype was used to justify European colonialism in Turkey, India, and China. Intergroup differentiationAn assumption is that people want their ingroup to have a positive image relative to outgroups, and so people want to differentiate their ingroup from relevant outgroups in a desirable way.[1.
If an outgroup does not affect the ingroupâ€™s image, then from an image preservation point of view, there is no point for the ingroup to be positively distinct from that outgroup.[1. People can actively create certain images for relevant outgroups by stereotyping. People do so when they see that their ingroup is no longer as clearly and/or as positively differentiated from relevant outgroups, and they want to restore the intergroup differentiation to a state that favours the ingroup.[1. Social functions: self- categorizationPeople will change their stereotype of their ingroups and outgroups to suit the context they are in.[2. People are likely to self- stereotype their ingroup as homogenous in an intergroup context, and they are less likely to do so in an intragroup context where the need to emphasise their group membership is not as great.[2. Stereotypes can emphasise a personâ€™s group membership in two steps: First, stereotypes emphasise the personâ€™s similarities with ingroup members on relevant dimensions, and also the personâ€™s differences from outgroup members on relevant dimensions.[2.
Second, the more the stereotypes emphasise within- group similarities and between- group differences, the more salient the personâ€™s social identity will become, and the more depersonalised that person will be.[2. A depersonalised person will abandon his/her individual differences and embrace the stereotypes associated with his/her relevant group membership.[2. Social functions: social influence and consensusStereotypes are an indicator of ingroup consensus.[2.
When there are intragroup disagreements over stereotypes of the ingroup and/or outgroups, ingroup members will take collective action to prevent other ingroup members from diverging from each other.[2. John C. Turner proposed in 1.
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