Textile manufacturing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fiber into yarn, yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fiber are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric- forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results. Processing of cottonCotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year 2. 00. There are six stagesCultivating and harvestingCotton is grown anywhere with long, hot dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity.
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Indian cotton, gossypium arboreum, is finer but the staple is only suitable for hand processing. American cotton, gossypium hirsutum, produces the longer staple needed for machine production. Planting is from September to mid November and the crop is harvested between March and June. The cotton bolls are harvested by stripper harvesters and spindle pickers, that remove the entire boll from the plant. The cotton boll is the seed pod of the cotton plant, attached to each of the thousands of seeds are fibres about 2. The seed cotton goes in to a Cotton gin. The cotton gin separates seeds and removes the "trash" (dirt, stems and leaves) from the fibre. In a saw gin, circular saws grab the fibre and pull it through a grating that is too narrow for the seeds to pass.
A roller gin is used with longer staple cotton. Here a leather roller captures the cotton.
A knife blade, set close to the roller, detaches the seeds by drawing them through teeth in circular saws and revolving brushes which clean them away.The ginned cotton fibre, known as lint, is then compressed into bales which are about 1. Only 3. 3% of the crop is usable lint. Commercial cotton is priced by quality, and that broadly relates to the average length of the staple, and the variety of the plant. Longer staple cotton (2Â½ in to 1Â¼ in) is called Egyptian, medium staple (1Â¼ in to Â¾ in) is called American upland and short staple (less than Â¾ in) is called Indian.The cotton seed is pressed into a cooking oil. The husks and meal are processed into animal feed, and the stems into paper.
Preparatory processes - preparation of yarnGinning, bale- making and transportation is done in the country of origin. Opening and cleaning. Cotton mills get the cotton shipped to them in large, 5.
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When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter. The bale is broken open using a machine with large spikes. It is called an Opener. In order to fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker, or similar machines. The cotton is fed into a machine known as a picker, and gets beaten with a beater bar in order to loosen it up. It is fed through various rollers, which serve to remove the vegetable matter. The cotton, aided by fans, then collects on a screen and gets fed through more rollers till it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known as a lap.Mixing & Scutching.
Scutching refers to the process of cleaning cotton of its seeds and other impurities. The first scutching machine was invented in 1. Manchester, England. By 1. 81. 6, it had become generally adopted.
The scutching machine worked by passing the cotton through a pair of rollers, and then striking it with iron or steel bars called beater bars or beaters. The beaters, which turn very quickly, strike the cotton hard and knock the seeds out. This process is done over a series of parallel bars so as to allow the seeds to fall through. At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber. Carding: the fibres are separated and then assembled into a loose strand (sliver or tow) at the conclusion of this stage. The cotton comes off of the picking machine in laps, and is then taken to carding machines. The carders line up the fibres nicely to make them easier to spin.
The carding machine consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it. All of the rollers are covered in small teeth, and as the cotton progresses further on the teeth get finer (i. The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver; a large rope of fibres.Note: In a wider sense Carding can refer to these four processes: Willowing- loosening the fibres; Lapping- removing the dust to create a flat sheet or lap of cotton; Carding- combing the tangled lap into a thick rope of 1/2 in in diameter, a sliver; and Drawing- where a drawing frame combines 4 slivers into one- repeated for increased quality. Combing is optional, but is used to remove the shorter fibres, creating a stronger yarn.Drawing the fibres are straightened. Several slivers are combined. Each sliver will have thin and thick spots, and by combining several slivers together a more consistent size can be reached.
Since combining several slivers produces a very thick rope of cotton fibres, directly after being combined the slivers are separated into rovings. These rovings (or slubbings) are then what are used in the spinning process.[1. Generally speaking, for machine processing, a roving is about the width of a pencil.
Drawing frame: Draws the strand out. Slubbing Frame: adds twist, and winds onto bobbins. Intermediate Frames: are used to repeat the slubbing process to produce a finer yarn. Roving frames: reduces to a finer thread, gives more twist, makes more regular and even in thickness, and winds onto a smaller tube.[1. Spinning - yarn manufactureMost spinning today is done using Break or Open- end spinning, this is a technique where the staples are blown by air into a rotating drum, where they attach themselves to the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of break spinning use needles and electrostatic forces.[1.
This method has replaced the older methods of ring and mule spinning. It also is easily adapted for artificial fibres. The spinning machines takes the roving, thins it and twists it, creating yarn which it winds onto a bobbin.[1. In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through some rollers, which are feeding at several different speeds. This thins the roving at a consistent rate. If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine. The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, and is rolled onto a cylinder called a spindle, which then produces a cone- shaped bundle of fibres known as a "cop", as the carriage returns.
Mule spinning produces a finer thread than the less skilled ring spinning.[1. The mule was an intermittent process, as the frame advanced and returned a distance of 5ft. It was the descendant of 1. Crompton device. It produces a softer less twisted thread that was favoured for fines and for weft. The ring was a descendant of the Arkwright water Frame 1. It was a continuous process, the yarn was coarser, had a greater twist and was stronger so was suited to be warp.
Ring spinning is slow due to the distance the thread must pass around the ring, other methods have been introduced. Sewing thread, was made of several threads twisted together, or doubled. This is the process where each of the bobbins is rewound to give a tighter bobbin. Plying is done by pulling yarn from two or more bobbins and twisting it together, in the opposite direction that in which it was spun. Depending on the weight desired, the cotton may or may not be plied, and the number of strands twisted together varies.[1. Gassing is the process of passing yarn, as distinct from fabric very rapidly through a series of Bunsen gas flames in a gassing frame, in order to burn off the projecting fibres and make the thread round and smooth and also brighter. Only the better qualities of yarn are gassed, such as that used for voiles, poplins, venetians, gabardines, many Egyptian qualities, etc.
There is a loss of weight in gassing, which varies' about 5 to 8 per cent., so that if a 2/6. The gassed yarn is darker in shade afterwards, but should not be scorched.[1. Mule spinning. Mule spinning. Ring spinning. Ring spinning. MeasurementsCotton Counts: The number of pieces of thread, 8. This is coarser than 4.
In the United Kingdom, Counts to 4. Oldham Counts), 4. In the United States ones to 2. Hank: A length of 7 leas or 8.
Thread: A length of 5. Bundle: Usually 1. Lea: A length of 8. Denier: this is an alternative method. It is defined as a number that is equivalent to the weight in grams of 9.
Tex: is the weight in grams of 1 km of yarn.[1. The worsted hank is only 5. Weaving- fabric manufactureThe weaving process uses a loom. The lengthway threads are known as the warp, and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle, that carries the yarn on a pirn. These pirns are automatically changed by the loom.
Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence.[2. After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where the winding machine takes the required length of yarn and winds it onto warpers bobbins. Racks of bobbins are set up to hold the thread while it is rolled onto the warp bar of a loom. Because the thread is fine, often three of these would be combined to get the desired thread count.Slasher sizing machine needed for strengthening the warp by adding starch to reduce breakage of the yarns.
The process of drawing each end of the warp separately through the dents of the reed and the eyes of the healds, in the order indicated by the draft.